Laws can be made by legislatures through legislation (resulting in statutes), the executive through decrees and regulations, or judges through binding precedents (normally in common law jurisdictions). Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including (in some jurisdictions) arbitration agreements that exclude the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution (written or unwritten) and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics,economics, and society in various ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people.
A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions (includingcanon and socialist law), in which the legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and common law systems, where judge-made binding precedents are accepted. Historically, religious lawsplayed a significant role even in settling of secular matters, which is still the case in some countries, particularly Islamic, and some religious communities, particularly Jewish Halakha. Sharia law is the world’s most widely used religious law.
The adjudication of the law is generally divided into two…
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